Idebenone [2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-(10-hydroxydecyl)-1,4-benzoquinone] is a synthetic analogue of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), the vital cell membrane antioxidant and essential constituent of the ATP-producing mitochondria electron transport chain (ETC). Idebenone is a potent antioxidant, with the ability to operate under low oxygen tension situations. Because of its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, idebenone protects cell membranes and mitochondria from oxidative damage. Its antioxidant properties protect against cerebral ischemia and nerve damage in the central nervous system. Idebenone also interacts with the ETC, preserving ATP formation in ischemic states. This compound has also been shown to stimulate nerve growth factor, a characteristic that could be important in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.